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Table 4 Summary of the data compared per research question. The samples compared differed in the geography used to aggregate data or the year in which the data was collected

From: Shifting landscapes of coastal flood risk: environmental (in)justice of urban change, sea level rise, and differential vulnerability in New York City

RQ Focus Data to compare Comparison across Sample 1 Sample 2
Geography Data source / year Geography Data source / year
1 Flood risk changes across time within the effective SFHA. Exposure and vulnerability indicators. Time Effective floodplain. MapPLUTO 2007; ACS 2006–2010. Effective floodplain. MapPLUTO 2018; ACS 2013–2017.
2 Flood hazard changes due to the shift from effective to preliminary SFHA. Total and % area flooded, according to the effective and the preliminary floodplains. Space Effective floodplain. FEMA Mapping Service center (n.d.); FEMA 2007. Preliminary floodplain. FEMA Mapping Service center (n.d.); FEMA 2013.
3 Flood risk changes due to adoption of the preliminary SFHA by adding and/or removing exposed areas and communities. Exposure and vulnerability indicators. Space Effective floodplain. MapPLUTO 2018; ACS 2013–2017. Area added to floodplain due to expansion in preliminary update. MapPLUTO 2018; ACS 2013–2017.
4 Differences in social vulnerability between exposed and non-exposed populations. Vulnerability indicators. Space Preliminary floodplain ACS 2013–2017. Area outside of the preliminary floodplain ACS 2013–2017.