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Table 4 Overview of key challenges in the Cities-4-People pilot cities from initial research results

From: Co-creating sustainable urban metabolism towards healthier cities

Research results: identified challengesLocations
OxfordBudapestTrikalaÜsküdarAltona (Hamburg)
Public TransportBus services are not frequent enough and not well connected.The time lost in congestion. Lack of real-time service information. Service costs.Time lost in congestion. Lack of full integration of transport modes and their operators. Lack of an integrated service connecting urban and suburban routes.Traffic congestion in the city centre. Lack of dedicated bus lanes. Service price. Low-frequency of services (weekends, holidays and late hours). Poor real-time service information.Heavy street congestion. Lack of integration of transport modes. Limited service hours and frequency. Service prices. Poor maintenance of vehicles.Large distances between stations and stops. Low frequency of services.
WalkingNarrow paths, difficult walking flow. This is aggravated by uneven surfaces and poor pavement maintenance. Cars park on pavements. Lack of continuity of walking paths. Concerns about safety–perceptions of crime.Air and noise pollution impacts the choice of walking. Lack of continuity between pavements and underpasses. Lack of green spaces and resting areas.Poor pedestrian infrastructure to serve mobility-impaired citizens. Poor pavement maintenance.Pavements are too narrow and shared by cars and restaurant tables. Lack of green spaces and resting areas. Too much jay-walking.Air and noise pollution impacts the choice of walking. Narrow pavements, shared with bikes and parked cars.
CyclingLack of continuity of cycle paths. Safety concerns due to poor condition of sustainable transport infrastructure on cycling routes.Infrastructure needs expanding to service a larger and more diverse audience.Poor connectivity of cycle paths.Geography – hilly. Underdeveloped cycling infrastructure.Lack of bicycle parking. Disconnected cycling routes. Poor signage.
Private VehicleCongestion. Lack of affordable parking provision inside and outside the city. Road network.Congestion. Road conditions. Not enough parking spaces in the city centre.Traffic congestion in the city centre. Illegal parking in the city centre. Taxi prices are competitive with that of public transport.Congestion. Lack of parking. Driving can be stressful.Congestion. Lack of parking. Unstructured and illegal parking.
Sharing ServicesaBicyclesBicyclesBicycles (but limited)Not known to respondentsBicycles, Cars, however not very widespread
  1. The research took place between June–September 2017, since then, private e-scooters and some car sharing services have been added to these cities