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Table 1 Eleven parameters of a Healthy City by Hancock and Duhl (1986)

From: Co-creating sustainable urban metabolism towards healthier cities

A clean, safe, high-quality physical environment (including housing quality)
An ecosystem which is stable now and sustainable in the long-term
A strong, mutually supportive and non-exploitive community
A high degree of public participation in and control over the decisions affecting one’s life, health, and well-being
The meeting of basic needs (food, water, shelter, income, safety, and work) for all the city’s people
Access to a wide variety of experiences and resources with the possibility of multiple contacts, interaction, and communication
A diverse, vital, and innovative city economy
Encouragement of connectedness with the past, with the cultural and biological heritage, and with other groups and individuals
A city form that is compatible with and enhances the above parameters and behaviors
An optimum level of appropriate public-health and sick-care services accessible to all
High health status (both high positive health status and low disease status)