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Table 2 Experiments and related key triggers, actors, barriers, linkages

From: Positive inertia and proactive influencing towards sustainability: systems analysis of a frontrunner city

1970~Pollution control initiativePollution, health effectsPolitical, cultural and financialCitizensLocal government–citizens–companies
1990~Expanding role of Kitakyushu International Techno-Cooperative Association to include local government and accept trainees for environment-focused courses, knowledge transferGlobal 500 Award, economic decline Local governmentCompanies–local government–national agency
1996~Environmental technology transfer (ODA)
-‘96 Dalian (Pollution)
- ‘99 Phnom Penh (Water management)
- ‘04 Surabaya (composting)
- ‘10 Haiphong (U-BCF)
Global concern, economic declineCulturalLocal governmentLocal government–local government, NPO–NPO
1997“Eco Town” (zero-emission industrial cluster)Economic declineInstitutional, competition/ external recycling marketLocal governmentLocal government–private sector–national agencies
2003Higashida Area: “Green village development”2001 Japan Expo on “Coexistence” held in Higashida (Kitakyushu)InstitutionalPrivate sector/local governmentPrivate sector–local government
2010Higashida Area: “Smart Community Project”, community energy management and the creation of energy “prosumers” (producers/consumers) Pressure from power companies, competitionPrivate sector/local governmentPrivate sector–local government–citizens
2010Establishment of Asian Center for Low Carbon Society by the mayor: institution of environmental business matchmaking, promotion joint ventures with developing Asian citiesEconomic decline, global concernCultural, financial, politicalLocal government/private sectorLocal government–private sector partnership
2010Environmental SMEs business expansion in- Haiphong (U-BCF expansion)
- Surabaya (recycling plant)
- Surabaya (industrial cluster)
Economic decline, global concernCultural, financial, politicalPrivate sectorBusiness–business
2011FutureCity InitiativeAgeing population and economic declineSocial, financialLocal governmentLocal government–business–citizens